tem-coin.png

ABOUT TEMCOIN

https://t.me/XTEMCOIN

The payment gateway industry is booming, and the cryptocurrency industry is rapidly developing.

TEMCoin will be one of the safest digital payment gateways. TEMCoin will have potential use as an intermediary crypto settlement tool on the TopFX trading platform including TE Markets Exchanges and business networks across Africa.TEMCoin is a utility token for the payment of goods, services settlement of global transactions.

The TEM coin will initially be launched as an exchange means for other cryptocurrencies and to solve TE Markets member’s payment settlements.

However, in the near future the token will be used to pay fees on TE Markets networks, Currency Trading Platforms, Commodities Exchange, a Continental Stock Market trading platform that we are creating that aims to make trading Africa’s stock markets with cryptocurrencies, fast, economical and proficient.

BIOGRAPHY OF BARACK OBAMA

Barack” and “Obama” redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation), Obama (disambiguation), and Barack Obama (disambiguation).
Barack Obama
Obama standing with his arms folded and smiling.
Official portrait, 2012
44th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017
Vice President Joe Biden
Preceded by George W. Bush
Succeeded by Donald Trump
United States Senator
from Illinois
In office
January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald
Succeeded by Roland Burris
Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district
In office
January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004
Preceded by Alice Palmer
Succeeded by Kwame Raoul
Personal details
Born Barack Hussein Obama II
August 4, 1961 (age 59)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Michelle Robinson ​(m. 1992)​
Children
MaliaSasha
Parents
Barack Obama Sr.
Ann Dunham
Relatives Family of Barack Obama
Residence Kalorama (Washington, D.C.)
Education Punahou School
Alma mater
Columbia University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)
Occupation
Politicianlawyerauthor
Awards List of honors and awards
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Website
Official website
Obama Foundation
White House Archives
President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg
This article is part of
a series about
Barack Obama
Political positionsElectoral history
Early life and careerFamilyPublic imageHonors
Pre-presidency
Illinois State Senator2004 DNC keynote addressU.S. Senator from Illinois sponsored bills
44th President of the United States
Presidency timeline
Policies
EconomyEnergyForeign policy EuropeEast AsiaMiddle EastSouth AsiaObama Doctrineforeign tripsPardonsSocialSpace
Appointments
CabinetJudges
First term
Campaign 2008 general electionprimariesTransitionFirst inaugurationFirst 100 daysRecovery ActRussia nuclear treatyAffordable Care ActDodd–FrankIraq withdrawalKilling of Osama bin LadenLibya interventionAfghanistan withdrawalBenghazi attack
Timeline ’09’10’11’12
Second term
Reelection campaign
2012 general electionreactions
Second inaugurationAnti-ISIL campaign IraqSyriaIran dealCuban thawSanctions against RussiaSelma 50th anniversary speechObergefell v. HodgesParis AgreementKunduz hospital airstrikeFailed nomination of Merrick GarlandTimeline ’13’14’15’16–’17
Post-presidency
Planned presidential libraryObama FoundationOne America Appeal
Dreams from My FatherThe Audacity of HopeA Promised LandNobel Peace Prize

vte
Barack Hussein Obama II (/bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/ (About this soundlisten) bə-RAHK hoo-SAYN oh-BAH-mə;[1] born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008 and as an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004.

Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Turning to elective politics, he represented the 13th district in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. Obama received national attention in 2004 with his March Senate primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated by the Democratic Party for president a year after beginning his campaign, and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. Obama was elected over Republican nominee John McCain in the general election and was inaugurated alongside his running mate, Joe Biden, on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the Affordable Care Act (commonly referred to as ACA or “Obamacare”), although without a public health insurance option, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimuli amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya for the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 1973, contributing to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi. He also ordered the military operation that resulted in the killing of Osama bin Laden.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusion for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was legalized nationwide in 2015 after the Court ruled so in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning global warming and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered successful military interventions in Iraq and Syria in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after interference in the 2016 U.S. elections, brokered the JCPOA nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court: Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan were confirmed as justices, while Merrick Garland faced partisan obstruction from the Republican-led Senate led by Mitch McConnell, which never held hearings or a vote on the nomination. Obama left office in January 2017 and continues to reside in Washington, D.C.[2][3]

During Obama’s terms in office, the United States’ reputation abroad, as well as the American economy, significantly improved.[4] Obama’s presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public frequently place him among the upper tier of American presidents.

Contents
1 Early life and career
1.1 Education
1.2 Family and personal life
1.2.1 Religious views
1.3 Law career
1.3.1 Community organizer and Harvard Law School
1.3.2 University of Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney
1.4 Legislative career
1.4.1 Illinois Senate (1997–2004)
1.4.2 2004 U.S. Senate campaign
1.4.3 U.S. Senate (2005–2008)
2 Presidential campaigns
2.1 2008
2.2 2012
3 Presidency (2009–2017)
3.1 First 100 days
3.2 Domestic policy
3.2.1 LGBT rights
3.2.2 White House advisory and oversight groups
3.2.3 Economic policy
3.2.4 Environmental policy
3.2.5 Health care reform
3.2.6 Energy policy
3.2.7 Gun control
3.2.8 2010 midterm elections
3.2.9 Cybersecurity and Internet policy
3.2.10 Government mass surveillance
3.3 Foreign policy
3.3.1 War in Iraq
3.3.2 War in Afghanistan
3.3.3 Israel
3.3.4 Libya
3.3.5 Syrian Civil War
3.3.6 Death of Osama bin Laden
3.3.7 Iran nuclear talks
3.3.8 Relations with Cuba
3.3.9 Africa
3.3.10 Hiroshima speech
3.3.11 Russia
3.4 Cultural and political image
4 Post-presidency (2017–present)
5 Legacy
5.1 Presidential library
6 Bibliography
6.1 Books
6.2 Audiobooks
6.3 Articles
7 See also
7.1 Politics
7.2 Other
7.3 Lists
8 References
8.1 Works cited
9 Further reading
10 External links
10.1 Official
10.2 Other

BIOGRAPHY OF DONALD TRUMP

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American media personality and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

Born and raised in Queens, New York City, Trump attended Fordham University and the University of Pennsylvania, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in 1968. He became the president of his father Fred Trump’s real estate business in 1971 and renamed it to The Trump Organization. Trump expanded the company’s operations to building and renovating skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. He later started various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. Trump and his businesses have been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, including six bankruptcies. He owned the Miss Universe brand of beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015. From 2003 to 2015 he co-produced and hosted the reality television series The Apprentice.

Trump’s political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, isolationist, and nationalist. He entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and was elected in an upset victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton while losing the popular vote.[a] He was the first U.S. president without prior military or government service. His election and policies sparked numerous protests. Trump made many false and misleading statements during his campaigns and presidency, to a degree unprecedented in American politics. Many of his comments and actions have been characterized as racially charged or racist.

During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy’s third revision. He enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 which cut taxes for individuals and businesses and rescinded the individual health insurance mandate penalty of the Affordable Care Act. He appointed three Supreme Court justices and more than 200 federal judges. In foreign policy, Trump pursued an America First agenda: he renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement as the U.S.–Mexico–Canada Agreement and withdrew the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Iran nuclear deal. He imposed import tariffs that triggered a trade war with China and met three times with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, but negotiations on denuclearization eventually broke down. Trump reacted slowly to the COVID-19 pandemic, ignored or contradicted many recommendations from health officials in his messaging, and promoted misinformation about unproven treatments and the availability of testing.

A special counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller found that Russia interfered in the 2016 election with the goal of helping Trump’s election chances, but did not find sufficient evidence to establish criminal conspiracy or coordination with Russia.[b] Mueller also investigated Trump for obstruction of justice and neither indicted nor exonerated him. The House of Representatives impeached Trump on December 18, 2019 for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress after he solicited Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden. The Senate acquitted him of both charges on February 5, 2020.

Trump lost the 2020 presidential election to Biden, but refused to concede defeat. He attempted to overturn the results by making false claims of electoral fraud, pressuring government officials, mounting scores of unsuccessful legal challenges and obstructing the presidential transition. On January 6, 2021, Trump urged his supporters to march to the Capitol, which hundreds stormed, interrupting the electoral vote count. On January 13, the House impeached Trump for incitement of insurrection, making him the only federal officeholder in American history to be impeached twice. The Senate acquitted Trump for the second time on February 13.

Contents
1 Personal life
1.1 Early life
1.2 Family
1.3 Religious views
1.4 Health
1.5 Wealth
2 Business career
2.1 Real estate
2.2 Branding and licensing
2.3 Legal affairs and bankruptcies
2.4 Side ventures
2.5 Foundation
3 Media career
3.1 Books
3.2 Film and television
4 Pre-presidential political career
4.1 2000 presidential campaign
4.2 2012 presidential speculation
4.3 2016 presidential campaign
5 Presidency (2017–2021)
5.1 Early actions
5.2 Conflicts of interest
5.3 Domestic policy
5.4 Other issues
5.5 Immigration
5.6 Foreign policy
5.7 Personnel
5.8 Judiciary
5.9 COVID-19 pandemic
5.10 Investigations
5.11 First impeachment (2019–2020)
5.12 2020 presidential election
5.13 Storming of the U.S. Capitol
5.14 Second impeachment (2021)
6 Post-presidency
7 Public profile
7.1 Approval ratings
7.2 Social media
7.3 False statements
7.4 Promotion of conspiracy theories
7.5 Relationship with the press
7.6 Racial views
7.7 Misogyny and allegations of sexual misconduct

BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON

George Washington, a Founding Father of the United States, led the Continental Army to victory in the Revolutionary War and was America’s first president.
Who Was George Washington?
George Washington was a Virginia plantation owner who served as a general and commander-in-chief of the colonial armies during the American Revolutionary War, and later

MINING CRYPTO

In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network. The rate of generating hashes, which validate any transaction, has been increased by the use of specialized machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running complex hashing algorithms like SHA-256 and scrypt.[41] This arms race for cheaper-yet-efficient machines has existed since the day the first cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was introduced in 2009.[41] With more people venturing into the world of virtual currency, generating hashes for this validation has become far more complex over the years, with miners having to invest large sums of money on employing multiple high performance ASICs. Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them.[42] Favorite regions for mining are those with cheap electricity or a cold climate. As of July 2019, bitcoin’s electricity consumption is estimated to about 7 gigawatts, 0.2% of the global total, or equivalent to that of Switzerland.[43]

Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block. A “share” is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work.

As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada.[44] One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices.[45] In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining.[46] According to a February 2018 report from Fortune,[47] Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity.

In March 2018, the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York put an 18-month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the “character and direction” of the city.[48]

GPU price rise
An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand for graphics cards (GPU) in 2017.[49] (The computing power of GPUs makes them well-suited to generating hashes.) Popular favorites of cryptocurrency miners such as Nvidia’s GTX 1060 and GTX 1070 graphics cards, as well as AMD’s RX 570 and RX 580 GPUs, doubled or tripled in price – or were out of stock.[50] A GTX 1070 Ti which was released at a price of $450 sold for as much as $1100. Another popular card GTX 1060’s 6 GB model was released at an MSRP of $250, sold for almost $500. RX 570 and RX 580 cards from AMD were out of stock for almost a year. Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU’s as soon as they are available.[51]

Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. “Gamers come first for Nvidia,” said Boris Böhles, PR manager for Nvidia in the German region.[52]

Wallets

An example paper printable bitcoin wallet consisting of one bitcoin address for receiving and the corresponding private key for spending
Main article: Cryptocurrency wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private “keys” (address) or seed which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency. With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet.

There exist multiple methods of storing keys or seed in a wallet from using paper wallets which are traditional public, private or seed keys written on paper to using hardware wallets which are dedicated hardware to securely store your wallet information, using a digital wallet which is a computer with a software hosting your wallet information, hosting your wallet using an exchange where cryptocurrency is traded. or by storing your wallet information on a digital medium such as plaintext.[53]

Anonymity
Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or “addresses”).[54] Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.[citation needed]

Additions such as Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.[55][56]

Economics
Cryptocurrencies are used primarily outside existing banking and governmental institutions and are exchanged over the Internet.

Block rewards
Proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin, offer block rewards incentives for miners. There has been an implicit belief that whether miners are paid by block rewards or transaction fees does not affect the security of the blockchain, but a study suggests that this may not be the case under certain circumstances.[57]

The rewards paid to miners increase the supply of the cryptocurrency. By making sure that verifying transactions is a costly business, the integrity of the network can be preserved as long as benevolent nodes control a majority of computing power. Th

CRYPTOCURRENCY

A cryptocurrency, crypto-currency, or crypto is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored in a ledger existing in a form of a computerized database using strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to control the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of coin ownership.[1][2] It typically does not exist in physical form (like paper money) and is typically not issued by a central authority. Cryptocurrencies typically use decentralized control as opposed to centralized digital currency and central banking systems.[3] When a cryptocurrency is minted or created prior to issuance or issued by a single issuer, it is generally considered centralized. When implemented with decentralized control, each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.[4]

Bitcoin, first released as open-source software in 2009, is the first decentralized cryptocurrency.[5] Since the release of bitcoin, other cryptocurrencies have been created.

SAFEMOON COIN

SafeMoon is another digital currency similar to Bitcoin and Ethereum, with a couple of key differences. Its creators say they want to fix some of the problems—like price volatility—that are common in other digital coins. To do this, SafeMoon aims to discourage day trading of its coin and to reward long-term holders by charging a 10% fee on each sale. Half of the fees collected are earmarked for existing coin owners, who receive a sort of dividend in the form of additional coins.

“The goal here is to prevent the larger dips when whales decide to sell their tokens later in the game, which keeps the price from fluctuating as much,” SafeMoon said in explaining its currency, using the term for investors who hold large amounts of digital coins.

SafeMoon also says it opts for manual burns versus continuous burns, which is when digital coins are purposefully removed from circulation. Manual burns, according to the creators, give SafeMoon more control over the coin’s supply. Less supply with increasing demand would increase the coin’s price.

Who leads SafeMoon?
SafeMoon lists a team of six leaders. At the top is CEO John Karony, who previously served as an analyst for the U.S. Department of Defense, according to his LinkedIn profile. He, along with SafeMoon’s chief technology officer Thomas Smith and community manager Trevor Church, is also working on an independent video game studio called TANO, an acronym for “technically a new operation.”

Smith has spent the past two years working with different organizations on blockchain and decentralized financial products. SafeMoon’s chief operating officer, Jack Haines-Davies, based in the United Kingdom, lists two companies on LinkedIn, LikeandShare and Ben Phillips Global, as his former employers. It’s unclear what those companies do.

What are SafeMoon’s plans?
SafeMoon has laid out a road map for the year. In the first quarter, the company said that it had doubled the size of its team and begun a marketing campaign. Next the company plans to complete a SafeMoon app (though it’s unclear what that app will do), a wallet, and games. It also says it plans to explore allowing trading of its currency on exchanges like Binance, begin building its own exchange, expand its team by 35%, and establish a U.K./Ireland office. In the last half of the year, the company said it plans to finish its SafeMoon Exchange and open an African-based SafeMoon office.

What do critics say?
The lofty plans have some skeptics raising their eyebrows at SafeMoon, especially as the price rises.

For example, a Twitter account called WarOnRugs, which identifies itself as a “community based, grassroots movement” that aims to expose crypto scams, criticized SafeMoon last month.

“Owner owns more than 50% of the liquidity and refuses to fix it,” the account tweeted. “He could pull LP and sell tokens, creating a rug pull [meaning an exit scam]. Likeliness of losing all funds: Absolute.”

Crypto analyst and investor Lark Davis echoed the sentiment last month, comparing SafeMoon to BitConnect, an investment platform that ended up being a Ponzi scheme. “Remember just because you make money off of a ponzi does not change the fact that it is a ponzi,” he tweeted.

More must-read tech coverage from Fortune:
How crypto and NFTs could help regular people become real estate tycoons
Why good cybersecurity is required amid the growing plague of ransomware attacks
Tencent’s video game boom comes back down to earth
Startup Tenstorrent aims to build A.I. chips that beat Nvidia’s best
Deutsche Telekom aims for majority stake in T-Mobile US by 2024
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BIOGRAPHY OF CRISTIANO RONALDO

“Cristiano” redirects here. For other people named Cristiano, see Cristiano (given name) and Cristiano (surname).
This name uses Portuguese naming customs: the first or maternal family name is dos Santos and the second or paternal family name is Aveiro.
Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo 2018.jpg
Ronaldo with Portugal at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Personal information
Full name Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro[1] Date of birth 5 February 1985 (age 36)[1] Place of birth Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
Height 1.87 m (6 ft 2 in)[note 1] Position(s) Forward
Club information
Current team Juventus
Number 7
Youth career
1992–1995 Andorinha
1995–1997 Nacional
1997–2002 Sporting CP
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
2002–2003 Sporting CP B 2 (0)
2002–2003 Sporting CP 25 (3)
2003–2009 Manchester United 196 (84)
2009–2018 Real Madrid 292 (311)
2018– Juventus 97 (81)
National team‡
2001 Portugal U15 9 (7)
2001–2002 Portugal U17 7 (5)
2003 Portugal U20 5 (1)
2002–2003 Portugal U21 10 (3)
2004 Portugal U23 3 (2)
2003– Portugal 173 (103)
Honours
Signature
Cristiano Ronaldo signature
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of 18:05, 15 May 2021 (UTC)
‡ National team caps and goals correct as of 21:45, 30 March 2021 (UTC)
A man in a red shirt looks to his right. This article is part of a series about
Cristiano Ronaldo
Portuguese professional footballer
International goalsCareer achievementsComparisons to Lionel Messi
Eponyms

Cristiano Ronaldo Campus FutebolCristiano Ronaldo International AirportGalaxy CR7Museu CR7
Films

Cristiano Ronaldo: The World at His FeetRonaldo
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Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH ComM (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɾiʃˈtjɐnu ʁɔˈnaɫdu]; born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Serie A club Juventus and captains the Portugal national team. Often considered the best player in the world and widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, Ronaldo has won five Ballon d’Or awards[note 3] and four European Golden Shoes, both of which are records for a European player. He has won 32 major trophies in his career, including seven league titles, five UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA European Championship, and one UEFA Nations League title. Ronaldo holds the records for the most goals (134) and assists (41) in the history of the UEFA Champions League.[9] He is one of the few recorded players to have made over 1,100 professional career appearances and has scored over 770 official senior career goals for club and country.[10] He is also the second male to score 100 international goals and the first European one to achieve the feat.[11]

Born and raised in Madeira, Ronaldo began his senior club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United in 2003, aged 18. After winning the FA Cup in his first season, he helped United win three successive Premier League titles, the UEFA Champions League, and the FIFA Club World Cup; at age 23, he won his first Ballon d’Or. In 2009, Ronaldo was the subject of the then-most expensive association football transfer when signed for Real Madrid in a transfer worth €94 million (£80 million). There, he won 15 trophies, including two La Liga titles, two Copas del Rey, and four UEFA Champions League titles, and became the club’s all-time top goalscorer. After joining Madrid, Ronaldo finished runner-up for the Ballon d’Or three times, behind Lionel Messi – his perceived career rival – before winning back-to-back Ballons d’Or from 2013–2014 and again from 2016–2017. After winning a third consecutive Champions League title in 2018, Ronaldo became the first player to win the trophy five times.[12] In 2018, he signed for Juventus in a transfer worth an initial €100 million (£88 million), the highest fee ever paid by an Italian club and the highest ever paid for a player over 30 years old. He won two Serie A titles and a Coppa Italia in his first three seasons with the club.

Ronaldo made his senior international debut for Portugal in 2003 at age 18, and has since earned over 170 caps, including appearing and scoring in ten major tournaments, becoming Portugal’s most capped player and his country’s all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal at Euro 2004 where he helped Portugal reach the final and assumed full captaincy of the national team in July 2008. In 2015 Ronaldo was named the best Portuguese player of all time by the Portuguese Football Federation. The following year he led Portugal to their first triumph in a major tournament by winning Euro 2016, and received the Silver Boot as the second-highest goalscorer of the tournament.

One of the most marketable and famous athletes in the world, Ronaldo was ranked the world’s highest-paid athlete by Forbes in 2016 and 2017 and the world’s most famous athlete by ESPN from 2016 to 2019. Time included him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2014.[13] Ronaldo is the first footballer, as well as only the third sportsman, to earn $1 billion in their career

ABOUT DOGECOIN

Originally formed as a joke,[10] Dogecoin was created by IBM software engineer Billy Markus and Adobe software engineer Jackson Palmer. They wanted to create a peer-to-peer digital currency that could reach a broader demographic than Bitcoin. In addition, they wanted to distance it from the controversial history of other coins.[11] Dogecoin was officially launched on December 6, 2013, and within the first 30 days there were over a million visitors to Dogecoin.com.[12]

Palmer is credited with making the idea a reality. At the time, he was a member of the Adobe Systems marketing department in Sydney.[13] Palmer had purchased the domain Dogecoin.com and added a splash screen, which featured the coin’s logo and scattered Comic Sans text. Markus reached out to Palmer after seeing the site, and started efforts to develop the currency. Markus had designed Dogecoin’s protocol based on existing cryptocurrencies Luckycoin and Litecoin,[14] which use scrypt technology in their proof-of-work algorithm.[15] The use of scrypt means that miners cannot use SHA-256 bitcoin mining equipment, and instead must use dedicated FPGA and ASIC devices for mining which are known to be more complex to produce.[16][17]

On December 19, 2013, Dogecoin jumped nearly 300 percent in value in 72 hours, rising from US$0.00026 to $0.00095,[18] with a volume of billions of Dogecoins per day. This growth occurred during a time when bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies were reeling from China’s decision to forbid Chinese banks from investing into the bitcoin economy.[14] Three days later, Dogecoin experienced its first major crash by dropping by 80% due to this event and to large mining pools exploiting the small amount of computing power required at the time to mine Dogecoin.[19]

On December 25, 2013, the first major theft of Dogecoin occurred when millions of coins were stolen during a hack on the online cryptocurrency wallet platform Dogewallet.[20] The hacker gained access to the platform’s filesystem and modified its send/receive page to send any and all coins to a static address.[21][22] This hacking incident spiked tweets about Dogecoin, making it the most mentioned altcoin on Twitter at the time, although it was in reference to a negative event. To help those who lost funds on Dogewallet after its breach, the Dogecoin community started an initiative named “SaveDogemas” to help donate coins to those who had them stolen. Approximately one month later, enough money was donated to cover all of the coins that were stolen.[23]

In January 2014, the trading volume of Dogecoin briefly surpassed that of Bitcoin and all other crypto-currencies combined, however, its market capitalization remained substantially behind that of Bitcoin. Initially, Dogecoin featured a randomized reward that is received for each mining block, however, in March 2014 this behaviour was later updated to a static block reward.

In April 2015, Jackson Palmer announced plans to take an “extended leave of absence” from the cryptocurrency community.[24][10]

During 2017 to early 2018 cryptocurrency bubble, Dogecoin briefly reached a peak of $0.017/coin on January 7, 2018, putting its total market capitalization near USD 2 billion.

In July 2020, the price of Dogecoin spiked following a TikTok trend aiming to get the coin’s price to $1.[25]

In January 2021, Dogecoin went up over 800% in 24 hours, attaining a price of $0.07, as a result of attention from Reddit users, partially encouraged by Elon Musk and the GameStop short squeeze.[26] In February 2021, Dogecoin hit a new high price of $0.08 following Twitter encouragement from Musk, Snoop Dogg and Gene Simmons.[27] In March 2021, Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban announced his NBA team would allow purchasing tickets and products with Dogecoin; within two days, Cuban had declared his franchise had become the top Dogecoin merchant, having carried out 20,000 transactions.[28]

In April 2021, Dogecoin and other cryptocurrencies surged, stimulated in part by the direct listing for cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase on April 14, although that platform did not provide trading of Dogecoin.[29] Its price first reached $0.10 on April 14,[30] before hitting a new high of $0.45 on April 16 (up 400% that week[31]), with a volume of nearly $70 billion traded in the preceding 24 hours.[32] At the time, Dogecoin’s market capitalization approached $50 billion, making it the fifth-highest-valued cryptocurrency;[33] its value had increased more than 7,000% year-to-date.[32] Interest in Dogecoin contributed to an outage in electronic trading platform Robinhood’s cryptocurrency system on April 15, caused by “unprecedented demand”, and prompted concerns from experts of a nearing speculative bubble in the cryptocurrency market.[31]

On May 4, 2021, the value of Dogecoin first surpassed the symbolic hurdle of $0.50,[34] a greater than 20,000% increase in one year.

On May 8, 2021, despite, or perhaps because of expectations of a surge in interest in Dogecoin resulting from Elon Musk’s appearance on Saturday Night Live, Dogecoin dropped 34% from $.711 at the opening of the show to below $.470 45 minutes later. By the following morning Dogecoin hit a swing low of $0.401, a cumulative drop of 43.6% and lost value of $35 billion.[citation needed]

On May 9, 2021, SpaceX announced a rideshare mission to the Moon completely funded by Dogecoin, thus becoming the first space mission funded by a cryptocurrency. Elon Musk confirmed this news via Twitter. [35] DOGE-1 will be a minor 40kg rideshare payload on Intuitive Machines’ IM-1 mis

ABOUT SHIBA INU

Shiba Inu was created in August 2020, modeled off Dogecoin,[10] another cryptocurrency, by the anonymous founder known as “Ryoshi”.[2][11] The token’s price at the time was negligible until reaching US$0.000002 on 20 April. On 9 May, the price soared to over $0.000009, peaking at $0.0000388 on 10 May.[12] At this time it had a market capitalization of over 13 billion according to CoinMarketCap, which was the 14th highest market capitalization in the cryptocurrency market. The price fell to $0.000018, over a 40% drop,[13] by 13 May, the same day that Vitalik Buterin donated more than 50 trillion Shiba Tokens to the India COVID-Crypto Relief Fund.[14][15]

Currency supply
As of 17 May 2021, a total of 394.796 trillion Shiba Tokens were in circulation, with the market cap sitting at $6.52 billion USD.[3] The supply limit for the currency is one quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000), meaning that just under one quarter of the currency is currently in circulation.[16]

Exchange
Shiba Tokens can be exchanged on ShibaSwap, Kucoin, CoinBene, Probit Global, CoinDCX, WazirX,[17] Binance, Crypto.com [18] Huobi,[5] and OKEx.[19]

ETH.png

ABOUT ETHEREUM

Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain with smart contract functionality. Ether (ETH) is the native cryptocurrency of the platform. It is the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, after Bitcoin.[1] Ethereum is the most actively used blockchain.[2][3]

Ethereum was proposed in 2013 by programmer Vitalik Buterin. Development was crowdfunded in 2014, and the network went live on 30 July 2015, with an initial supply of 72 million coins.[4][5][6][7][8] The platform allows developers to build and operate decentralized applications that users can interact with.[9][10] Decentralized finance (DeFi) applications provide a broad array of financial services without the need for typical financial intermediaries such as brokerages, exchanges, or banks, such as allowing cryptocurrency users to borrow against their holdings or lend them out for interest.[11][12] Ethereum also allows for the creation and exchange of NFTs, which are non-interchangeable tokens that can be connected to digital works of art or other real-world items and sold as unique digital property. Additionally, many other cryptocurrencies operate as ERC-20 tokens on top of the Ethereum blockchain and have utilized it for initial coin offerings.

In 2016, a hacker exploited a flaw in a third-party project called The DAO and stole $50 million of Ether.[13] As a result, the Ethereum community voted to hard fork the blockchain to reverse the theft[14] and Ethereum Classic (ETC) continued as the original chain.[15]

Ethereum has started implementing a series of upgrades called Ethereum 2.0, which includes a transition to proof of stake and aims to increase transaction throughput using sharding.[16][17]

Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin,[18] a programmer and co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications.[19][20] Buterin argued that Bitcoin and blockchain technology could benefit from other applications besides money and needed a scripting language for application development that could lead to attaching real-world assets, such as stocks and property, to the blockchain.[21] In 2013, Buterin briefly worked with eToro CEO Yoni Assia on the Colored Coins project and drafted its white paper outlining additional use cases for blockchain technology.[22] However, after failing to gain agreement on how the project should proceed, he proposed the development of a new platform with a more general scripting language that would eventually become Ethereum.[4]

Ethereum was announced at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami, in January 2014.[23] During the conference, Gavin Wood, Charles Hoskinson, and Anthony Di Iorio (who financed the project) rented a house in Miami with Buterin to develop a fuller sense of what Ethereum might become.[23] Di Iorio invited friend Joseph Lubin, who invited reporter Morgen Peck, to bear witness.[23] Peck subsequently wrote about the experience in Wired.[24] Six months later the founders met again in a house in Zug, Switzerland, where Buterin told the founders that the project would proceed as a non-profit. Hoskinson left the project at that time.[23]

Ethereum has an unusually long list of founders. Anthony Di Iorio wrote: “Ethereum was founded by Vitalik Buterin, Myself, Charles Hoskinson, Mihai Alisie & Amir Chetrit (the initial 5) in December 2013. Joseph Lubin, Gavin Wood, & Jeffrey Wilcke were added in early 2014 as founders.” Formal development of the software began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).[25] The basic idea of putting executable smart contracts in the blockchain needed to be specified before the software could be implemented. This work was done by Gavin Wood, then the chief technology officer, in the Ethereum Yellow Paper that specified the Ethereum Virtual Machine.[26] Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale from July to August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (Ether) with another digital currency, Bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability.[19]

In 2019, Ethereum Foundation employee Virgil Griffith was arrested by the US government for presenting at a blockchain conference in North Korea.[27]

Etymology

MJ.png

MICHAEL JACKSON

Michael Jackson, in full Michael Joseph Jackson or Michael Joe Jackson (see Researcher’s Note), (born August 29, 1958, Gary, Indiana, U.S.—died June 25, 2009, Los Angeles, California), American singer, songwriter, and dancer who was the most popular entertainer in the world in the early and mid-1980s. Reared in Gary, Indiana, in one of the most acclaimed musical families of the rock era, Michael Jackson was the youngest and most talented of five brothers whom his father, Joseph, shaped into a dazzling group of child stars known as the Jackson 5. In addition to Michael, the members of the Jackson 5 were Jackie Jackson (byname of Sigmund Jackson; b. May 4, 1951, Gary), Tito Jackson (byname of Toriano Jackson; b. October 15, 1953, Gary), Jermaine Jackson (b. December 11, 1954, Gary), and Marlon Jackson (b. March 12, 1957, Gary)
Motown Records president Berry Gordy, Jr., was impressed with the group and signed them in 1969. Sporting the loudest fashions, the largest Afros, the snappiest choreography, and a youthful, soulful exuberance, the Jackson 5 became an immediate success. They scored four consecutive number one pop hits with “I Want You Back,” “ABC,” “The Love You Save,” and “I’ll Be There” in 1970. With Michael topping the pop charts as a solo performer with “Ben” and reaching number two with “Rockin’ Robin,” and with the Jackson 5 producing trendsetting dance tracks such as “Dancing Machine,” the family’s string of hits for Motown lasted through 1975. As Michael matured, his voice changed, family tensions arose, and a contract standoff ensued. The group finally broke with Motown, moving to Epic Records as the Jacksons. Jermaine remained at Motown as a solo performer and was replaced by his youngest brother, Randy Jackson (in full Steven Randall Jackson; b. October 29, 1961). As a recording act, the Jacksons enjoyed consistent success through 1984, and their sister Janet Jackson embarked on her own singing career in the early 1980s; however, Michael’s solo albums took on an entirely different status.
Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television
Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television.

Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television.

Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television.

Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television.

Jackson’s first solo effort for Epic, Off the Wall (1979), exceeded all expectations and was the best-selling album of the year (it eventually sold more than 20 million copies). Produced by industry veteran Quincy Jones, Off the Wall yielded the massive international hit singles “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” and “Rock with You,” both of which showcased Michael’s energetic style and capitalized on the contemporary disco dance fad. Three years later he returned with another collaboration with Jones, Thriller, a tour de force that featured an array of guest stars and elevated him to worldwide superstardom. Thriller captured a slew of awards, including a record-setting eight Grammys; remained on the charts for more than two years; and sold more than 40 million copies, long holding the distinction of being the best-selling album in history. The first single on the album, “The Girl Is Mine,” an easygoing duet with Paul McCartney, went to number one on the rhythm-and-blues charts and number two on the pop charts in the fall of 1982. The follow-up single, “Billie Jean,” an electrifying dance track and the vehicle for Jackson’s trademark “moonwalk” dance, topped the pop charts, as did “Beat It,” which featured a raucous solo from famed guitarist Eddie Van Halen. Moreover, “Beat It” helped break down the artificial barriers between Black and white artists on the radio and in the emerging format of music videos on television.